Posts Tagged   negro soldiers

June 11, 1863


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June 10, 1863

Emilio describes the burning of Darien ([BBR]):

After a rather rough voyage of some eighty miles during the night, the ” De Molay ” dropped anchor at 6 A. M. [on the 9th] in the sound off the southern point of St. Simon’s Island.  Colonel Shaw landed and rode across the island to report to Colonel Montgomery…

Quartermaster Ritchie issued A and wall tents to the Fifty-fourth on June 10; and all were at work pitching camp and clearing the ground, when a steamer came to the wharf. Colonel Montgomery was on board, and hailing Colonel Shaw from the deck, said, ” How soon can you be ready to start on an expedition?” Colonel Shaw replied, ” In half an hour,” and at once caused the long-roll to be sounded. Hurried preparations were at once made, and at 6 p. M. eight companies of the regiment embarked on the ” Sentinel.” Companies F and C were left behind as a camp guard.

Running down the river to Montgomery’s camp, the armed transport “John Adams” was found with troops on board. Besides the Fifty-fourth, five companies of the Second South Carolina, and a section of Light Battery C, Third Rhode Island Artillery, under Lieut. William A. Sabin, took part in the expedition. Owing to the ” Sentinel ” grounding after proceeding a short distance farther, and the ” Adams ” also running on a shoal, there was long delay waiting for the flood-tide. Not until 1 A. M. did the “Sentinel” run up the coast, entering Doboy Sound at sunrise. There the gunboat “Paul Jones” and the “Harriet A. Weed” joined. Entering the Altamaha River, with the gunboats occasionally shelling houses and clumps of woods, the vessels proceeded until the town of Darien appeared in sight. Then the gunboats searched it with their shells and fired at a few pickets seen east of the place.

At 3 P. M. the troops landed without resistance at some of the deserted wharves. Pickets were posted, and the troops formed in the public square. Only two white women and a few negroes were found. The inhabitants were living at the ” Ridge,” a few miles inland. Some fifteen or twenty men of the Twentieth Georgia Cavalry, under Capt. W. A. Lane, picketed the vicinity, but had retired. Darien, the New Inverness of early days, was a most beautiful town as Montgomery’s forayers entered it that fateful June day. A broad street extended along the river, with others running into it, all shaded with mulberry and oak trees of great size and beauty. Storehouses and mills along the river-bank held quantities of rice and resin. There might have been from seventy-five to one hundred residences in the place. There were three churches, a market-house, jail, clerk’s office, court-house, and an academy.

After forming line, orders came for the Fifty-fourth to make details and secure from the houses such things as would be useful in camp, besides live-stock, resin, lumber, etc. Soon the plundering thus legitimized began. An officer thus describes the scene: —

“The men began to come in by twos, threes, and dozens, loaded with every species and all sorts and quantities of furniture, stores, trinkets, etc., till one would be tired enumerating. We had sofas, tables, pianos, chairs, mirrors, carpets, beds, bedsteads, carpenter’s tools, cooper’s tools, books, law-books, account-books in unlimited supply, china sets, tinware, earthenware, Confederate shinplasters, old letters, papers, etc. A private would come along with a slate, yard-stick, and a brace of chickens in one hand, and in the other hand a rope with a cow attached.”

But the crowning act of vandalism is thus set forth in one of Colonel Shaw’s letters: —

“After the town was pretty thoroughly disembowelled, he [Montgomery] said to me, ‘ I shall burn this town.’ He speaks in a very low tone, and has quite a sweet smile when addressing you. I told him I did not want the responsibility of it, and he was only too happy to take it all on his own shoulders. . . . The reasons he gave me for destroying Darien were that the Southerners must be made to feel that this was a real war, and that they were to be swept away by the hand of God like the Jews of old. In theory it may seem all right to some; but when it comes to being made the instrument of the Lord’s vengeance, I myself don’t like it. Then he says, ‘ We are outlawed, and therefore not bound by the rules of regular warfare.’ But that makes it none the less revolting to wreak our vengeance on the innocent and defenceless.”

By Montgomery’s express orders, therefore, the town was fired, only one company of the Fifty-fourth participating with the Second South Carolina, Montgomery applying the torch to the last buildings with his own hand. Fanned by a high wind, the flames eventually destroyed everything but a church, a few houses, and some lumberworks owned in the North. The schooner “Pet,” with fifty-five bales of cotton for Nassau, lying in a small creek four miles above, was captured, and a flatboat with twenty-five bales near by was also secured.

Our transports had been loaded with plunder, and late in the afternoon the troops re-embarked. Some warehouses had been fired, and the river-bank was a sheet of flame. A few moments’ delay or a change of wind might have resulted disastrously. The heat was so intense that all were driven to the farther side of our boat, and gunbarrels became so hot that the men were ordered to hold them upward. Five miles below the town the steamer anchored. The light of the fire was seen that night at St. Simon’s, fifteen miles away.

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June 7, 1863


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May 26-27, 1863

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May 20, 1863

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May 17, 1863

A letter from Shaw to his mother:

Readville [BCF]
May 17 1863

Dear Mother,

We were very sorry not to find you in the train last night, and to hear that you were ill.  Nellie arrived safely and is at present domiciled with Effie & us at Mrs. Crehore’s.

Tomorrow, if it is not stormy, there are to be four-banners presented to the 54th. I have persuaded all the donors to have them presented together by the Govr so that the whole affair will not occupy more than 1/2 hour.

The War Department has been notified that we shall be ready to go on the 20th Inst, but we have heard nothing from them yet, so that I can’t tell when we shall go. I will telegraph to you when I find out. Do try to come if you can.

Give my love to Father, Anna, & George. I wish I had something more to write you but I haven’t, because I am so sleepy and stupid. Goodnight dearest Mother.

Annie sends you & Father her best love.

Always your loving son

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April 26-28, 1863

Fifty-nine men joined the regiment on these three days.

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April 21, 1863

Twenty-nine men joined the regiment today.

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March 24, 1863

This is Gooding’s fourth letter to the New Bedford Mercury:

[Mercury, March 24, 1863][OAF]
Camp Meigs, Readville, March 21
Messrs. Editors:–

The glorious 54th (that is to be) is getting on nicely, there being now in camp 368 men, two companies, A and B, being full, and C and D wanting a few more men to fill them up, which can easily be done in a very few days. We have five men in our company who are enlisted, but expect them to be discharged, on account of physical disability; indeed, if every man had been received who applied, I think it would very near have filled five companies.

The men appear to be all very well satisfied, except a few in Cos. A and B, who are of a class to be satisfied with nothing. Two of them attempted to skedaddle last Friday night, but were brought to by feeling a bayonet in the rear, as Co. C had sentinels posted at the time. They say their grounds for trying to desert are that they have received no bounty, as was represented they should as soon as they had enlisted and been sworn in. I think the men who are about the country recruiting should not misrepresent the conditions, but leave it more to the judgment and patriotism of men to enlist, simply providing conveyance to the camp, as, I think, they are authorized to do. As regards the men who came from New Bedford in this company, they do not seem to think so much about any bounty, but, by the vote of the City Council, a sum of money was appropriated for the relief of the families of colored citizens enlisted in the 54th regiment, and some of the men fear their families are suffering now for the want of their customary support.

You, Messrs. Editors, may be well aware that colored men generally, as a class, have nothing to depend upon but their daily labor; so, consequently, when they leave their labors and take up arms in defence of their country, their homes are left destitute of those little necessities which their families must enjoy as well as those of white men; and as the city has passed a resolution to pay them a sum, they would rather their families received it than become objects of public charity. We are all determined to act like men, and fight, money or not; but we think duty to our families will be a sufficient excuse for adverting to the subject.

John H. Atkinson, of New Bedford, is in the hospital, very sick. I could not ascertain exactly what his complaint is, but think it is the effect of cold. With that exception the health of the men is very good.

We have a very pleasant time in our barracks every evening, having music, singing, and sometimes dancing. We have two musicians who regale us with very fine music—a great deal better than a ‘feller’ pays to hear sometimes.

The ladies of the Relief Society will please accept the thanks of Co. C. for those shirts, socks and handkerchiefs, which should have been expressed in the last letter. God bless the ladies.

J. H. G.

PS. Wm. T. Boyd, of Pa., died this day (23d). He was in the hospital but two days. He was a member of Co. B.
J. H. G.

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March 1, 1863